转基因食品的利与弊

转基因食品的安全性一直存在着巨大的争议,目前国际上还没有达成共识。它的存在也只有短短10多年的时间,许多长期影响目前还不得而知。因此,很多人认为对转基因食品应采取预防原则,在长期的安全性还没有完全确定之前,不应该在食品生产中使用转基因原料。

那么转基因食品的利与弊具体是什么呢?下面就介绍一下,以供参考。

转基因食品的有较多的优点

  1. 可增加作物单位面积产量;可以降低生产成本;
  2. 通过转基因技术可增强作物抗虫害、抗病毒等的能力;
  3. 提高农产品的耐贮性,延长保鲜期,满足人民生活水平日益提高的需求;
  4. 可使农作物开发的时间大为缩短;可以摆脱季节、气候的影响,四季低成本供应;
  5. 打破物种界限,不断培植新物种。

转基因食品也存在潜在风险,如过敏性、毒性及对环境影响也令世人关注。

  1. 毒性问题。一些研究学者认为,对于基因的人工提炼和添加,可能在达到某些人们想达到的效果的同时,也增加和积聚了食物中原有的微量毒素。
  2. 过敏反应问题。对于一种食物过敏的人有时还会对一种以前他们不过敏的食物产生过敏,比如:科学家将玉米的某一段基因加入到核桃、小麦和贝类动物的基因中,蛋白质也随基因加了进去,那么,以前吃玉米过敏的人就可能对这些核桃、小麦和贝类食品过敏。
  3. 营养问题。科学家们认为外来基因会以一种人们目前还不甚了解的方式破坏食物中的营养成分。
  4. 对抗生素的抵抗作用。当科学家把一个外来基因加入到植物或细菌中去,这个基因会与别的基因连接在一起。人们在服用了这种改良食物后,食物会在人体内将抗药性基因传给致病的细菌,使人体产生抗药性。
  5. 可能引发新疾病。转基因技术采用耐抗菌素基因来标识转基因化的农作物,这就意味着农作物带有耐抗菌素的基因。这些基因通过细菌而影响我们。英国的研究显示,转基因作物中的突变基因可能会进入到生物体内,其结果可能会导致新的疾病。如果类似结果发生在人和动物体内,就可能培养出功效最强的、抗菌素也无法杀死的超级细菌。

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